Indonesien arbeitet mit Deutschland, um Fachkräftemangel zu bekämpfen

Indonesiens soll bis 2045 ein wohlhabendes Land werden. Eine Strategie besteht darin, den Schwerpunkt auf die berufliche Bildung zu legen, um die Produktivität der Humanressourcen zu verbessern. Dafür arbeitet Indonesien mit Deutschland und der Schweiz zusammen.

Tackling "skills mismatch", BPSDMI and KADIN collaborate with Germany and Switzerland 

Indonesia's vision to become a prosperous country by 2045, one century after its independence, is to be achieved through economic transformation from a commodity-based economy to a high-value productive economy. One strategy to attain this goal is by putting emphasis on vocational and educational training (VET) to improve the productivity of human resources. 

However, there is a consensus that secondary vocational school (SMK) graduates lack the competency required by the industry, for example with mismatched knowledge, lack of soft and hard skills or social competence. The same concerns have been shared over the last two decades despite various government efforts to improve the quality of SMKs - the latest through Presidential Instruction (Inpres) Number 9/2016. It must be noted however, that these efforts are fragmented and only a few vocational schools have received support. This raises the question, why do these issues persist, and will they still be brought up in the next decade? 

During the opening ceremony of the Master Trainer Piloting Training on Sept. 27, the Industry Minister, Agus Gumiwang Kartasasmita, was confronted about these issues. He stated that SMKs and Polytechnics under the management of the Industrial Human Resource Development Agency (BPSDMI), part of the Ministry of Industry, were obliged to have strategic partnerships in industry. However, it had become clear over the decades that promoting partnerships alone was not effective. 

He said, "In-Company Trainers should predominantly provide guidance to interns and apprentices". Learning from the successful dual systems in Germany and Switzerland, successful partnerships with companies must be based on a "win-win" principle. Students and companies must both benefit from the partnership, namely, the student’s competency is increased thus helping the company's processes, as well as easing recruitment. 

The key ingredient of a "win-win" partnership is the availability of a facilitator, called an "In-Company Trainer" to ensure effective skill and knowledge transfer in workplace training, which includes internships, apprenticeships and up-skilling. Other benefits for the company include the certainty of a highly qualified workforce with the desired soft and hard skills. On the other hand, failure to recruit a competent workforce is a mis-investment, which affects its competitiveness. 

The training is based on the international standard (AdAIB), introduced by the Chamber of Commerce in Trier (IHK Trier) in 2015. Arus Gunawan, head of the BPSDMI said, since 2018, the BPSDMI had initiated the program for In-Company Trainer training in collaboration with Coordinating Economic Affairs Ministry (Kemenko Perekonomian) and the Indonesian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (Kadin Indonesia), supported by the German and Swiss Government, through IHK Trier and TVET System Reform/GIZ, and  Skills for Competitiveness (S4C) respectively. The training modules were now available from basic up to master level, enabling the Indonesian government to upscale the number of In-Company Trainers rapidly. 

The AdAIB training has created more than 500 trainers for more than 3,000 In-Company Trainers, prepared by the Manpower Ministry. Still, the number of In-Company Trainers is far from enough. Martin Hansen, the Country Director of GIZ Office Indonesia, ASEAN and Timor-Leste on behalf of Deputy Ambassador of the German Embassy highlighted that the participation of industry was the key to qualified implementation of vocational education and training as had been practiced in Germany since 1970. As a commitment between President Joko "Jokowi" Widodo and Chancellor Angela Merkel, the German government continuously supports Indonesia to improve vocational education and training including efforts to multiply the number of In-Company Trainers in Indonesia. 

On a separate occasion, the deputy minister of Digital Economy, Manpower and Small and Medium Enterprise from the Coordinating Ministry of Economic Affairs, Rudy Salahuddin, stressed that Indonesia needed to seriously transform the VET system from a "supply-driven" to a "demand-driven" system, with the private sector playing an active role. The participation of industry represented by Kadin Indonesia must also be reflected in VET policy. Otherwise, we will face the same problem in the next decade. 

The opening ceremony was also attended virtually by the Indonesian Ambassador for Germany, Arief Havas Oegroseno, the Switzerland Ambassador, Kurt Kunz for Indonesia, as well as representatives of Kadin Indonesia.

Quelle:, 28.09.2021